Anzeiger, 12 Anzeiger, 2 Zoologische Anzeiger, 9 Unsere Zeitung, Leipzig, 1 Kosmos, 1 Kosmos, 2 Zeitschrift die gesammte Ornithologie, pp. Kosmos 9, 16 Sitzungsberichte der Koenigl. Preuss, Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 48 Deutsche Colonial-Zeitung, 2 Unsere Zeitung, Leipzig, 2 , Uebers Meere. Gera, P. Genschel, os. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London, series 5, 17 Jahrbuch der deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 13 Sitzungsbericht der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, pp.
Unsere Zeitung, 2 Deutsche Colonial-Zeitung, 3 : Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, 32 , cf. Ornis, pp. Zoologie, 45 Petermanns Geographische Mittheilungen, Biologisches Centralblatt, 8 Nachrichtsblatt der deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen der Berliner anthropologischen Gesellschaft, pp. Nachrichchtsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, , Verhandlungen der Berliner an thropologischen Gesellschaft , pp.
Das Ausland, 46 Entomologische Nachrichten. Naturwissenchaftliche Wochenschrift, 6 40 , 41 Das Ausland, 24 Das Ausland, 31 Das Ausland, 22 Freunde zu Berlin, pp. New Zealand Journal of Science, 1 4 Zoologische Anzeiger, 14 Verhandlungen des deutschen, wissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Santiago , pp. Nachrichtsblatt der Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, pp.
Das Ausland, 8 : Nachrichtsblatt der Deuschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, Atti del Congresso Botanico Internazionale, Genova, pp. Naturwissenchaftliche Wochenschrift, 7 42 Globus, 62 15 : Nachrichstsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, Nova Acta der Kais. Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher, 58 5 Koseritz Deutscher Volkskalender, Porto Alegre, pp. Das Ausland, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 Apud: E. Revista do Museu Paulista, 2 Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen naturforscher Gesellschaft, pp.
The Nautilus , Philadelphia, 6 Zoologischer Anzeiger, 16 : Paulo - Catalogo. Journal de Conchyliologie, pp. Revista do Museu Paulista, 1 Revista do Museu Paulista, 1 : Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologische Gesellschaft, pp. A Ilha de Trindade. Revista Brazileira , Rio de Janeiro, 3 : A Ilha de Fernando de Noronha.
Revista Brazileira , Rio de Janeiro, 4 : , Annuario do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul para o ano de Revista do Museu Paulista, 2 : Nachrichstsblatt der deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, : Volume II. Arcidae, Mytilidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 19 : Zoologischer Anzeiger, : Volume III , pp. Revista do Museu Paulista, 3 Revista do Museu Paulista, 3 : Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, p.
Revista Agricola, 4 : , Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, pp. Zoologische Anzeiger, Gesellschaft, pp. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, 6 Revista Agricola, 4 42 The Ibis, p. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, p. Der Zoological Garten, 40 : Revista do Museu Paulista, 4 : Revista do Museu Paulista, 4 Philadelphia, pp. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 4 2 : Science, 12 ; — Die Entstehungsgeschichte der Fauna der neotropischen Region.
Gesellschaft, Wien , pp. Revista do Museu Paulista, 8 : The Nautilus, 15 4 , 5 : Ibis, p. Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologische Gesellschaft, : Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 41 : Zoologisher Anzeiger, 36 : Volume V , pp. Revista do Museu Paulista, 5 : Historia Natural e Anthropologia do Brazil.
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Historia, Buenos Aires, 1 Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 7 : O Campo, Rio de Janeiro, 1 11 : , 1 fig. Volume VI , pp. Maria, filha deD. Nole-sc que a express. Tirei o texto da edirSo mediocre de iS5i. Quanlo ao atanor, atenor, lanor. Vasos-de-bebcr-agua, de metal, nao eram do gosto dos peninsulares. M"' d'Aulnoj, admirada da abundante o luxuosa baixela.
Leonor, fundadora do hospicio. V, , 5Go, Carvalho, Corografia, 1. O lugar de Vila. Nova da Tclha nunca leve notoriedade. Mas esses sao de barro. Gens, Rua da Bombarda, Calcada do forno de tijolo etc. V, au ss. Palestra de duas vezinhas acerca dos dezestrados fins de seas dotes em poder de seus perdularios mar idos Lisboa, C. Nesse ano um poco, substituido boje por urna bomba, indi cava apenas de onde viera em tempos antigos a agua necesaria para a industria oleira.
Todas as estatificas o provam. E a ela que a viajante deve as noticias sobre coisas de Portugal contidas na sua obra. Voyage en Espagne, cap. VIH p. Livro II, c. Livro III, c. No Livro , c. Xa rcalidade. Poia ou poya cni fornos de p. Elucidario,, s. No Algarvc tambeni lia barros excelentes, p. Em Hcspanha crcio que ha mais inda v. Embora fabricados, em grande parte, em Hcspanha, tSo. Affonso V, com o Emperador Frcderico a. Stuttgart, p. Quanlo a ceradas apenas me lembra 1er lido num estudo de Manuel Rico Sinobas, publicado no Almanaque de El Museo de la Industria para a p.
Sabemo-lo ao cerlo de filhas c netas de D. Manoel e D. Isabel, a Infanta D. Maria c Princesa D. Beatriz de Saboia c D. Maria de Parma. Florencia de Ulhoa, fura criada na Corte d'aquela Infanta D. Provas, II, 44G. A abundancia, p. Nota 87'. Bordallo Pinheiro fez alguns que sao um primor. Num perfumadoiro que Magalolti recebeu de presente da dama aportuguesada D. Viajes de Extranjeros por EapaTia y Portugal, p. Ma" quanto niais proibido, tanto mais cobijado. Aponto ontro na lista do enxoval de D. Cocos tanto vinliam das Indias orientaos como das occidentaos.
E quantos oui ros centros havia! Os Inventarios devem estar no Arquivo de Simancas. Assombrado com o luxo c as raridades africanas que notou na curte de D. Fernando, pae de 1. Como D. Especialmente os de vidro, por esse material ser o preferido para copos de beber, pela sua transparencia. Conforme deixei dito, Joaquim de Vasconcellos colloca-os no tompo de D. Leonor o de D. Joao II, i. Vcja-se p. As buhas de Estremoz e as do Prado vao hoje acompanhadas de copos de barro. Tomar urna pucarada inteira de caldo ; beber de ve: uma pucarada d'agua.
Em Tolhausen temos buhara, para variar. Grijalva nolou Na Galiza p. A maioria indica Portugal como patria da arjila. O moringue p. Mo sci, se com razao ou sem ela. O mundo e o cais. VV, Il Romanzo, Vol. III, Torino, , pp. Se tivesse insistido duma forma mais atenta sobre o que em Cabo Verde se estava a produzir, Freyre teria encontrado um brilhante paradigma para as suas teorias luso-tropicalistas.
Appadurai, A. A quem se dirige o poema de Jorge Barbosa? A areia das ilhas trasforma-se numa esponja que absorve tudo. Veja-se Lisboa, Eugenio. Imperial governance was and continues to be predicated on the rhetoric of modernity reluctant imperialism, light imperialism, e. Perturbar a hegemonia dos. The postcolonial studies would not even formulate their task like this. The postcolonial studies do not alter the inherent discourses of progress and development fundamental for the myth of modernity as it is. Inventei que a minha terra era o Brasil. Madrid: Espasa Calpe 4 volumes , Porto: Afrontamento, Curtius, Ernest-Robert.
European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Views from South, vol. Lisboa: Estampa, Green, Otis H. Madrid: Editorial Gredos, Cultural Studies, , pp. Porto: Afrontamento, , pp. Maldonado-Torres, Nelson. City, Vol. Cultural Studies, , , pp. Manuela Ribeiro Sanches. Lisboa: Ed. Cotovia, , pp. Medeiros, Paulo de. Ribeiro, Margarida C. Porto: Campo das Letras, , pp. O Homem Suspenso. Lisboa, Publicacoes Dom Quixote, Mignolo, D. Walter, e Tlostanova, Madina V. European Journal of Social Theory, 9 2 , , pp. Nepantla: Views from South 1. Cultural Studies, 2, , pp.
Ribeiro, Margarida Calafate Ribeiro. Oficina do CES, n. Said, Edward.
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Tlostanova, Madina. Nozipo Maraire. Introduction Journeying has been a constant throughout African history. Ever since BC when the Niger Basin saw the departure of the Bantu peoples southwards and eastwards, Sub-Saharan Africa has been in a constant state of coming and going. What is relatively new however, is recording for posterity in written form the sagas of these journeys.
There has been a long history of recording movement and migrations in graphic form as the symbolic language of, for example, the Zulu peoples shows. It acts as a statement, legitimising the history of the clan and its will to survive radical change as well as threats to its livelihood. The combi- nation of the textual record of the journey of discovery, the cohesion of the clan and the voice of the girl is a good introduction to what this paper hopes to show.
Portuguese, for example. In writing them down, these women are legitimising the history of their struggle to be heard as African women the world over1. It was a slow, small sporadic movement of clans bringing iron and smelting technology with them from West Africa as they came. They settled in the Congo Basin in about BC but over the next one and a half thousand years, a last phase of migration began where clans pushed on steadily southwards eventually meeting up with the San people in South Africa.
Pluriculturalism and plurilinguism has therefore been a way of life for many centuries as peoples crossed natural and manmade boundaries on their way to somewhere else. But, with rare exceptions, the journeying was always made within a context of hierarchical, gendered structures of community life. Later on, migration was enforced for more sinister reasons due to the threat of the Arab-run and then the Western-European slave trade, as well as.
However, it is hoped that my condition as a woman and my own origins and life in Africa will not invalidate the claims I am about to make. Heine, B. Phillpson in B. Davidson , Guide to African History, Northampton. John Dickens Publishing. It was always the woman to uproot and strike out in a new direction whether she liked it or not. She was obliged at an early age to confront new realities and live through new experiences often alone, despite the presence of other women around her.
The reasons above are of course valid today for the individual migrant and more particularly since the early s. When African countries achieved their hard-won independence, it was believed that many of the woes hitherto suffered would automatically disappear as new political and social orders took root. The fact that this has not happened in most cases, and the tendency leading to urbanisation in a globalised world as rural communities are unable to cope economically, has given rise to a non-stop exodus to the cities over the last 50 years and hence to other social, economic and cultural environments.
However many negative factors this economic migration has caused in the unruly sprawling cities of developing Africa, the new setting has nevertheless provided the chance for another voice, another presence to emerge, hitherto only heard intermittently as an undercurrent. It has given women the chance to be heard in some small way. The reasons for women migrating are also largely economic.
According to a UN study, women make up one third of all the regular migrants to richer African states4. They are usually married and older, or more. Their main aim is sending remittances back regularly to their homes and communities so as to feed and educate their children, provide health care, and generally improve the living standards of their loved ones left behind.
Moreover, they are often self-employed and, as many have entered neighbouring countries illegally and are undocumented, their living conditions are extremely precarious. Finally, a word should be said about highly educated African women who have migrated. Their movement is mostly going abroad in a veritable brain drain. A choice of women writers How is this migratory movement involving women reflected in creative writing?
They are neither fully grasped in all their multiple interpretations and levels of meaning, nor do they penetrate the imagination of people.
Instead, what individuals remember and what triggers off their imagination is based upon what they have understood of their commu-. Winter, , pp. What is transformed into signifying representations and practices is what has touched them and involved them personally. This is the stuff legends are made of — as well as autobiographies and fiction.
Memory is only really fired into imagination that may be given form in personal writing when events and occurrences touch upon and affect our personal lives positively or negatively. Then the stories of the self involving the other begin. Looking over the books on my bookshelf one day, I singled out thirteen African women authors whom I have read over the previous 15 years and whose narratives were either wholly autobiographical or had marked autobiographical influences.
Much of it could be called engaged literature where there was a concern also for the greater political and socio-cultural picture of their times. The means of portraying this engagement with the life-struggle varied and called upon different aesthetic choices and combinations often at at variance with the aesthetic claims made by Western canonical literature. Serote , C. Achebe and N. I therefore decided to go deeper into the question of moving away from the centre, whatever that centre might be, to find out how memory and the act of writing down their recollections helped to create new identities and a sense of belonging in a new scenario.
The publications of the three generations of authors extend over a period of nearly 40 years, from the early s up to although some authors, like Ellen Kuzwayo started writing late in life and some authors like Bessie Head and Yvonne Vera were cruelly cut short by their untimely deaths. Some are newcomers to the world of writing, like the little-known South African writer, Zazah Khuzwayo, and are yet to prove themselves, while others have found new creative outlets such as Tsitsi Dangarembga who is also a film-maker.
Yet others, like J. Nozip Maraire, Margaret Ogola and Sindiwe Magona exercise very different professions, such as in neurosurgery, paediatrics and diplomacy, but have found the time to write. Only three authors live outside their own countries which they visit regularly for professional or private purposes: Buchi Emecheta residing in England, and Chimamanda Adichie and J.
Nozip Maraire who are both doing post-graduate work at Yale University while respectively teaching and practicing medicine. The question could be raised about dealing with so many apparently different genres in this exercise, even if united around the subjects of gender and journeying. Similar to the fictional narratives, the autobiographies also contain African myths and legends, going back to a past that has come down to present genera- tions through word of mouth and traditional story-telling — an art fast disap- pearing in urbanised Africa, as the younger writers reveal.
But perhaps all the biographical publications are really biomythographies — where the writers recreate themselves through their writing. In addition to this, the autobiographies, allegories, memoirs, fictional narratives and epistles are all vehicles in which the authors recreate themselves under different names and settings. They are heavily reliant on their own trajectories in life and their personal experiences; they borrow anecdotal episodes intermeshed with personal interpretations of representations which give way to fictional aspects, myth, folklore, considera- tions about the creative process itself, etc.
On the other hand, mythobiographies are a combination of relationships with artistic creation and actual experience so as afford a space in which the author philosophises about life, writing, art, and even language. Lesotho-born Miriam Tlali, in Between Two Worlds changes her name to Muriel but builds her identity not only through a convincing account of an episode in her own professional life as an office worker but also through her political commentary and speculation about the nature of racism, the use of language as a pluricultural tool and the idiosyncrasies of human nature Margaret Ogola — the paediatrician when she is not writing, may well be Dr.
Thus her prose is bound together not so much by a chronological reading of the events in her life, as it is by theme, image and sound. The edition is unabridged. Padilha Eds. On another road: women travelling to other centres There are however, exception to this clarity and linear quality. Furthermore, it in no way mythologises the author. Rather, both narratives seem to reflect upon themes that have long been taboo.
Chiziane refuses to call herself a novelist romancista , thus demarcating her writing from Western genres. She states that she is a story-teller. Nozip Maraire takes on the role of the traditional story-teller of tales and parables in the letters she writes her daughter, studying medicine at Harvard like Maraire herself. She subverts the idea of kuchinga, that brings Rami sexual gratification and she opens new avenues in making the niketche — an initiation dance heralding womanhood — the symbol of female sexuality in a new urban setting.
This is a theme — miscegenation — that Bessie Head takes up. Not only is there the burden of past practices and representations to understand and sort out, but a reassessment and recreation of personal identities needs to be made away from the traditional centres. The power to be true to oneself and yet integrate into a community brings peace of mind but it seems it can only be achieved through migrating away from the source of subjugation.
Moreover, self- realisation and mythologizing that brings about a state of inner harmony may only be obtained by seeing these stories set in writing in the new centre.
CAPAS DA COLECÇÃO VAMPIRO
But the relations she has within her unit are not symmetrical — she is beholden to male authority, even if he is a distant relative. A woman knew who she was in the traditional community, what was expected of her and what she could expect of others. But it also restricted her field of manoeuvre if she wanted to change an intolerable situation as for example, non- compliance by the males of the family to live up to their side of the marriage bargain, domestic violence, excessive male promiscuity, etc. And it also kept her in her place — as a dependent, as a subaltern, often denying her education and giving her the means whereby she was able to emancipate herself.
This was the strength of the traditional community and was the main reason of its survival. Naturally, women in the inner centre found ways of fulfilling themselves as women, as wives and mothers and as members of the community.
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It indicates that there was something to be said for its certainties, roots and shared community experience. Nevertheless, my interest lies in the cases recorded in literature about the women who wanted to go beyond this point to get to other centres. The outward bound journey Moving was not, therefore, just going from A to B. Travelling on the road to other centres meant an interactive, interconnected dislocation process that involved the actual physical journey where she always set out alone, often secretly, and always against the odds to go to another centre.
As regards the first departure point, from the rural community to an urban area, most women in the narratives suffered hardship due to the fact that they had been obliged to sever or loosen ties with their extended families and members of their clan.
Travel Writing and Diasporic Spaces
Lack of money was a constant worry and even if they did not lack in qualifications, finding work was an on-going headache. Only in very few journeys away from the reprimanding, restricting circle or community was finan- cial independence not a problem, simply because the young women in question were going to other cities to study e.
Kambili in Purple Hibiscus. The physical duress suffered almost seems beyond the understanding of Western readers: where the next meal was coming from, how to look presentable for a job interview when she only had one change of clothes; how to scrape up enough money for a bus fare; how to pay for tuition so as to better her situation, etc. Although little talked about, the journeys themselves were fraught with danger — whether it was going by donkey cart to the nearest bus terminal, catching the train 3rd class , or a getting a lift in a hair-raising taxi ride.
Unlike the Western traveller of today, where the journey itself is the target for the experience it affords, to the migrant, the shorter the time spent on the physical journey, the better. A journey such as this is not for savouring but is a necessary step that must taken to get to the much-dreamt of destination — as any migrant washed up on a Mediterranean beach after a hazardous piroga voyage will tell you. Very often, domestic violence lay at the bottom of the desire to flee, a point we shall be looking at further on.
But there were more levels attached to the act of journeying. The social and cultural implications of the journey cannot be underestimated as the hitherto unambiguous condition of their lives, now became far more complex in the way that the structure of their world fell away. It involved them in the struggle to find a new niche in a new community life with its different social and cultural values, modes of organisation and rules and regulations.
All the women striking out along new routes had to learn to deal with new communicative modes of expression. They did not only have to learn the language of the coloniser if they did not know it fluently enough, but they had to under- stand and learn how to handle a new semiotic system that extended beyond the linguistic system and influenced social and cultural codes and behaviours.
They also had to learn to handle new forms of appropriate behaviour, suppressing emotions in more cosmopolitan societies or in circumstances where direct contact was made with the white population as Sindiwe Magona discovered when she saw how far liberal white activists would go when the anti-apartheid struggle reached its peak in the s. Being young in practically all cases, the women had to overcome their hopelessly inadequate education that had failed to prepare them for the life they were going into. Many were mission educated within the strict confines of Church doctrine. They had to struggle to understand the difference between the traditional concept of sin and the mundane business of living within the close confines of township and ghetto life and its resulting promiscuity, violence and petty criminality.
They had to learn to seek new spiritual counselling as they confronted crises of faith in other realities. It is interesting to note the role of the Church in these instances. While serving as a spiritual prop, and in some cases as a vanguard denouncing poverty and humiliation particularly during colonial times, it also delivered its pious message of submission, replacing clan authority and pagan mysticism with the authority of the church fathers allied to the state.
The influence the church was, in fact, fundamental for its role attempt- ing to replace rural religious beliefs by providing girls with a rudimentary mission education. In spite of its segregation policy, the college would do its best to alienate Tambudzai from her African heritage. Furthermore, despite the fact that Chimamanda Adiche brings up the question of a de-Christianised Europe seeking vital new human resources in a Christianised Africa when a young black Igbo priest is sent to a new parish in Germany, she also gives us a 21st century setting in Eastern Nigeria, where the Achike household in Purple Hibiscus is held in the quasi neo-colonial grip of the Catholic ritual and dogma as represented by an Irish priest.
Nothing seems to have changed since. Indeed, colonial rule not only perpetuated this state of helplessness and lack of autonomy, but enforced it so that women ended up by being doubly disenfranchised. So how else was she able to find new openings and new identities unless she broke away physically and culturally from her entrapment? Finally, interacting with and influencing the physical journey and the social and cultural passage to independence, came the feminine journey to self-discov- ery and empowerment through finding her own mode of expression. This in turn led to new modes of social interaction in the new scenario and a new sense of self-achievement and satisfaction.
In all cases, she had to quickly throw off her ingenuousness and her restricted world view to tackle the ambiguities of cosmopolitan life in mixed communities, where hardship, variety and challenge rubbed shoulders and where a state of preparedness and being informed was essential. But more than that, it meant finding her voice and finding the conditions in which she was able to exercise the right to speak and the right to be heard. Rather, it is that women have started to write about themselves and about other women like them.
We need to look at the narratives a little more closely to see how the first step in finding their voices — the act of migrating, of physically moving from the rural area to the town — was dealt with by some of the writers. It marked the very first decisive step in triggering off the process leading to self-discovery and self-expression. It meant that this was the most crucial stage, where breaking out of the secure inner circle was the most difficult thing to do simply because it involved the greatest courage, the greatest challenge.
It was usually done alone where facing formidable obstacles became even more daunting. Once the rural area had been left, it was easier to make the transition to the large city far away, and hence to a neighbouring country or abroad. All of the three South African autobiographies describe how the writers, Ellen Kuzwayo, Sindiwe Magona, Zazah Khuzwayo went from the rural area to the nearest city, despite their different reasons. His constant physical aggression made her fear for her life. Thus, with great misgivings, she decided to leave him and her two young sons and head for Johannesburg, for safety and for political involvement.
The narratives speak of the ensuing hardships suffered by these migrant families living in the outlying poverty-stricken and crime-ridden slums of the large cities. She was also a rural Luo girl who married young and went off to the capital, Nairobi, to be with her young husband.
Nevertheless, as her childless marriage failed, she went back to her home near Lake Victoria, to learn how to do needlework and become a crafts teacher. She won her economic independence this way. It is ironical, that she returned to Nairobi years later, after the death of her young son born from an adulterous relationship to become a glorified servant.
It is a modest, but thoroughly realistic finale. As the descendents of this original royal family moves with the times, it becomes urbanised, educated and eventually makes part of the new black ruling class of independent Kenya. The original royal blood now comes out as society acknowledges the brilliant doctor, Wandia, and her exemplary family; it is a success story in itself.
We are left in doubt whether she would find the wherewithal to take charge of the direction of their lives. Rather they are as three waifs meandering this way and that in a hostile world, surviving the best they can. Despite having found their voices, they are nevertheless never heard above a whisper. Rami in Niketche, as well as four of his other concubines were fetched by Tony, also a policeman, either from the Zambezi or the north of Mozambique where obedient rural women were taught how to gratify their husbands and live in polygamous households.
But theirs is not so much the journey from the north to Maputo, as making their way around Maputo and learning the ways of a large urban centre while traversing routes to economic independence. Each of the narratives is set against a stark colonial background where the main characters are in complicity with the authoritarian regime in some way.
Her journey is from the quayside where she is a prostitute catering to white sailors in the s, to crossing the invisible line segregating the white suburbs from the black, only to head north to the Namuli Mountains after she finds that her black skin will never assimilate her into the white world of the colonist; the call of her own history and culture as a black African woman is too strong to be denied. It means going back and accepting the wisdom of the ancestors, valuing the community cohesion forged in the playing out of rites and rituals, as well as the social bonding that some age-old customs represent — and this at a time when the rest of the world seems bent on casting away its history as rushes out to live the here-and-.
She needs to confirm her identity before she loses sight of herself when she goes off to Columbia University to study. She should listen when her illiterate but charismatic grandmother tells her who she is and what the meaning of a woman's life is. The hybrid life of cosmopolitan Harare and the language of the coloniser cannot replace the symbols, rituals and identity of the Shona people, and Zenzele needs to be made aware of this before she chooses her path in life.
However, going back did not really work for Elizabeth in A Question of Power.
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Elizabeth has a mental breakdown as she struggles to find a niche for herself in rural Botswana. Her refuge into madness, not only caused by her own traumatic personal history is a way of rejecting her birth-country's vicious repressive system and the centuries of suffering caused her indigenous people.
Nyasha is also a hybrid having lived her childhood in England. Thus, she silences herself almost to death by starving herself while obsessively throwing herself into her studies and alienating herself from those around her. She returns to London to start over again, alone, fighting against the odds, acquiring further education, changing her profession, earning the respect of her children and finding love again.
She becomes self-sufficient and an active member of the migrant community on the fringe of standard British society. But all this has to happen away from her birth place. Hence, we find that although immigrating to another country comes with financial comfort whether in the form of wealthy parents or a scholarship, the return is generally traumatic. She stays in Johannesburg, her adopted city, the microcosm representing Apartheid South Africa. She discovers she is not the only immigrant working in the electrical appliance firm.
Most of her co- workers are migrants; her boss is a Jewish refugee Europe; the Italian mechanics who want to hire her are white economic immigrants. She knows that ultimately speaking, white immigrants to a racist regime work against her as surely as if they were the Boers in power, represented in this microcosm by the white female clerical workers and the white electricians repairing the appliances. As an educated black woman, her dignity and independence is preserved when she chooses to walk out of the door into unemployment.
The traditional opening for educated women, as Sindiwe Magona explained, lay in either teaching or nursing. Indeed, in these 14 narratives, 7 of the protagonists are lowly paid, teachers at the bottom of the scale It was the most black women could aspire to until independence, as Ellen Kuzwayo aptly showed in her autobiography with her desperately short list of the black women in South Africa who had managed to become medical doctors or lawyers between and Having an education meant a steady job and a better income, as well as status in the community.
But it also meant continuing the social role that women had always played even in their traditional societies. Even the young heroines, Zenzele and Wandia continue with this socialised awareness when they study medicine. Only two women venture out of this feminine choice of professions: Muriel who has a Business degree and Zazah Khuwayo who studies electrical engineering for a while before dropping out due to financial problems.
She finally achieves a balance with nature in harmony with her social and communitarian awareness. Apartheid South Africa is not the only cause of enforced racial separation. During the time of writing their narratives, the Shona people in former Rhodesia now Zimbabwe , the Luos in Kenya, the Igbo in Nigeria and the. San Basarwa in Botwana are also singled out for harassment and repression.
Delfina herself has become assimilated because of the benefits it will bring her. Even after independence, the destruction of social and cultural barriers does not happen because new classes are established and the divide line continues to be economic and political. Only Zazah Khuzwayo seems blithely unaware of class, colour or ethnic group — befitting in a country that prides itself on the epithet of Rainbow nation.
It is a violent process involving rupture and pain. In fact, violence seems to be the background and the foreground of all of the women's writings under study here. In a well-run, harmonious community, gratuitous violence is always controlled. But he must do so within the limits of the community laws. He may not commit incest, sell his children into prostitution, abandon his family or jeopardise the health and lives of its members by committing excesses. However, when the good governance of the clan breaks down due to dispersion, war, catastrophe or abnormal states such as colonialism, then violence may become way of life — particularly if it helps an outside hegemonic power.
The degree of abnormality is made more obscene when women help to subjugate other women. Paulina Chiziane in O Canto Alegre da Perdiz, describes how Delfina sold her 13 year-old daughter, Maria das Dores, into a polygamous marriage for the sake of a small sum of money which was promptly spent on liquor. Paulina, Kehinde and Ellen Kuzwayo, received the cold shoulder from their families when they decided they could not live with the intolerable situations their husbands had created.
When set against the younger generation of women, the men appear less in control, almost passive, somewhat silent. After all, the colonial situation made victims out of all black men as well. He can afford to. He represents the white colonist — albeit benevolent father to his half-caste children — with his roots in his homeland. Despite the odds, all the narratives are success stories showing how the main female protagonists making the outward journey have arrived at their own inner selves.
Because their bodies, their identities are not static sites of oppression, they have been able to create their own conditions for building their otherness. They have shattered the destinies that were fixed for them in patriarchal contexts and have gone out alone to find their new, less shackled womanhood. The physical journey to other localities to be educated or to work, the social and cultural journeys leading to cosmopolitanism and learning how to survive in other realities, and the psychological journey to consolidating notions of their own self- worth and self confidence have led to self expression.
Thus, rather than being hindered by the myths, the politicised explanations and the historical content, the moral, pedagogical note is heightened. The story-telling seems to spur other women to journey out and find their voices, too. Conclusion Whether it is in writing their autobiographies, their mythobiographies, biomythographies, allegories, epistles or stories, the authors who have written about these women and their struggle to break their alterity and be heard, have also recovered their historical space once occupied by oral story-telling.
Their work has come up with some refreshing alternative views as they themselves made their way from the rural areas to the city and thence, very often, to other worlds in the great the Diaspora. Far from adopting Western stances related to gender issues, they have worked within the storehouse of their own memories, experiences and struggles in colonial and post-colonial settings.
Furthermore, they have fashioned surprising new aesthetic patterns into which they have woven new linguistic uses and symbolic meanings. It is the same silence which also challenges metropolitan notions of polysemity, and which resists the absorption of post-colonial literatures into the new universalist paradigms which emerge in the wake of post- structuralist accounts of language and text. References Achebe, C. Ashcroft, B. Galloway, S. Hassim, S. Jameson, F. Maraire, J. Marshall A. Mata, I. McFadden, P.
Onkonkwo, J. Pereira, C. Stenger, F. Wilson-Tagoe, N. Paulo para tema. As viagens espirituais de S. A route designed through the disclosing of body and theory. As a mobile of the practice of travel, the travel book is the materialization of a certain kind of scientific exploration through which people try to find the sense of places, describing their experience of landscape. But this has to do with the effect of different medium implied for the organization of experience.
Though my route of interception be- tween geography and cinema. As a goal of scientific inquiry, cinematic landscape challenges established categories of space and time, forcing the compreension of the relational frames inside which people rethink the being in the world. The traveling theory brought here, is not moved by the envy of making room for any hierarchy of concepts or methodologies as means of legitimating discour- sive forms and dominant subjectivities.
Though its own condition of traveling theory. Each moment of my travel book results from the challenge opened by the act of writing to the translation of the experience of landscape. In this sense, I have tried to surpass the appealing sensuality of circumscription in its subliminar service of closing up the operations of creation and desire.
Inside them, the impe- tus of spatialization of subjects in formation and the geophysical movements which animate territories of contact, the dynamics of borders and boundaries. Geography and cinema Denouncing the reorganization of the technologies of experience, cinema allowed the development of a perceptive system and a system of emotions that integrates the symbolic worlds of different individuals and groups, of fragmentary, mutable, and heterogeneous subjects.
Cinemas status as a popular art contributed to surpass the classic model of public sphere and to forge out new models directed for a pluralistic social action. Its capacity to record and reveal physical reality Kracauer, compels us to wonder through places engendered by film.
But what does that mean in what concerns to the evolving relation between human being and physical world? Each film functions as a practice of mapping, a practice of mapping of the lived spaces of emotion and affect Bruno, , far from the monologic universe of a given order of knowledge. Though, from the relation between geographical speechs and filmic speeches result some of the most meaningful proposals for the reevaluation of the sense of place, in the present moment we live. It is within this frame that my critical route should be understood.
Inside this route of travel reading and writing, travel book is the result of an act of translation of different worlds and languages. This is, in so far, an integral part of a generative path which:. Acting as a pre-ontology which structures the way I approach the physical world, each page of my travel book shows a trajectory through texts, written, visual and audiovisual documents, the relation between images and words, movement and sound, time and rhythm. This allowed me to understand geography and spatialization as epistemic structures.
While mapping and translating different cinematic landscapes, my own text opened up to generative spaces inside which geography is analised as a concretion of subjectivities. My speech is also reviewed as a situated knowledge my knowl- edge is always a vision of home, from my own body, with its countless gates to other bodies. In this sense, my travel book gives way to a practice of scientific inquiry inside which the critical process of geographical spacialization is, above all, a process of multiple inhabitation of spaces through bodies, of the psychic dynamics and of the dynamics of the social relations.
And this is a great challenge for a discipline traditionally worried with questions of diversity and diffusion, redirected now to questions of diference and to identity politics that open the possibility for more inclusive institutions and public debates, having into account an idea of culture not as an organic whole but as a structure of feelings. Thinking space in those terms implies having it as an articulation of collisions between speech, fantasy and corporeality, between representations and material reality.
Such a formulation upgrades the complexity of space, allocating this notion as a potentially unstable and contro- verse construct. Having into account the relations between conceptualized, perceived and lived space, this formulation, in a certain sense, accentuates the dominant logics of power, truth and knowledge, but at the same time, it functions as a force which continually gets at stake with the generative logics of differential practices of space. From theory to practice As it happens in any travel book, my text evinces the bodily practice of place, the act of interpretation and translation of different worlds.
Setlled in a position of traveler and icononaut [sic] and entangled with the comprehension of the nature of the filmic place, I slowly and sistematicaly gathered the fragments of cinematic landscape which allowed me the definition of a traveling theory. Hanged over by an analytic dispositive which enabled me the comprehension of cinematic landscape, I walked through rough territories even for a geographer; from filmic studies to biophilosophy. This was the only maner through which I could deepen the comprehension of landscape as a transdisciplinar subject.
The definition of an analytic technology able of rendering the experience of landscape within an alternative relational frame, asked the triangulation of elements from iconology and filmic semiotics. Shaped by a critical and revisionist sensibility which characterizes the contemporary movement of landscape approach by Cultural Geography, this technology allowed me to go a step further in the discussion of landscape as a cultural construction, as an idea and as experience. The identification of a theorectical frame sustained by the idea of cinema as a cultural product able of rendering the role of countless geographical imagina- tions in the organization of the daily life experience, enabled me to attend to the relation between aesthetic practices and the practice of physical environment.
The approach to this question led to the definition of a frame able of answer- ing to the theorectical and practical imperatives of my scientiphic inquiry connecting socio-cultural practices apparentely so diverse such as geography and cinema. Transcripts from a travel book Functioning as a strategy of translation of codified cultural products, my analytic technology allowed the rereading and the rewriting of landscape as a system of geographical signs.
This enables the possibility of rereading and rewriting of the geographical sign systems allocating geography as a differential order of knowledge which is permanently in negotiation and which results from a diffractive and dialogic relationality.
Within this frame, the constitution of nature as Other is surpassed, and the effects of histories of colonialism, racism, sexism and class domain that nurtured the tension between nature and culture are contested. Travel books and scientific explorations: from body to theory What is at stake is the construction of a new relation between nature and culture, a relation that fractures a modern relational frame responsible for the reification, possession, appropriation and nostalgia regarding land and its sources.
This same relation is implicitely codified in imperial geographical sign systems and in cartographic and topographic languages of inventariation and domain. My effort of positionality as a subject in formation is then linked to the collective construction of landscapes of co-inhabitation and difference. More then succumbing to the demolishing idea of substitution of the somehow factual space to a virtual space, in a period deeply marked by war and techno- science, or more than simply transpheering social events from physical to screen environments, which would be more a caprice of a bipolar and reflective rationality , I am engaged with the task of understanding landscape experience as an experience of radical alterity.
The rupture of the traditional dichotomy that puts at distance subject and object, as a relational frame that underlies modern geographical thought and practice, begins with the challenge of understanding space as a material semiotic entity. The indagation of cognitive and linguistic skills that conventionally define landscape as an object of knowledge or desire is then connected to the emer- gence of levels of a constitutive mutual affectation responsible by the reciprocal shaping of subject and object Whatmore, The consideration of the problem of landscape having into account space as a material and semiotic entity, is the turn of the screw.
In this context, landscape is not understood as a purely human construction erased under the idea of a pre- human universal nature, but as a concretion of inferences whose material and semiotic character challenges any aesthetic reading based in a fundamental division between subject and object. The way stable meanings are constructed by a vast set of actants human and non-human as a means of forging countless paterns of inferences, is then the focus of attention, and this as means of reaching the process of revision of the landscape experience itselve.