The law distinguishes between proceedings in personam against the person and proceedings in rem against the thing. In the early twentieth century, for example, libel actions, typically begun in personam , often concluded with a judgment or settlement in rem , requiring the destruction of the offending res , the stock of books containing the injurious falsehood. In rem solutions disabled the communications circuit by simply removing the signal. During his American tour in , Wilde coyly complained of losing his private life to newspaper reporters even as he hungrily courted publicity, marketing his own privacy in ways that would become a fixed feature of modernity Hofer and Scharnhorst, eds.
His own need for privacy was twofold: he wanted domestic privacy for himself and his family, and he paid blackmailing boys not to reveal the increasingly open secret of his homosexuality. Wilde thought of himself as an exception within or outside the law. His exceptionality was in part a self-willed emergency, a suspension of normativity comparable, on the level of the individual self, to forms of political exception identified by Carl Schmitt and Giorgio Agamben.
Chapter 1 introduces many of the discrete though overlapping areas of law to be examined in later chapters: obscenity, copyright, blackmail, defamation, privacy, and publicity. Together, Wilde and modernism constitute a sort of legal call and response. Obscenity and censorship are the subjects of Chapter 2. My approach here is to trace important sociolegal issues—the concept of immoral tendencies and the special vulnerability of children; indiscriminate circulation of indecency and the institution of private editions; and the troublesome regulatory anomaly of literary classics—back to their articulation in the case of Regina v.
Hicklin and forward to their development in modernist culture. Once Victorian moralism had extended its censure to serious literary and educational works, obscenity law lost its coherence as a tool for regulating explicit commercial pornography and became an arm of capricious meddling. Long before Hicklin , English jurisprudence had been troubled by the seemingly victimless nature of literary obscenity; and with the advance of prudery, there seemed no logical way of keeping the classics from being swept into the suppression campaign. If a classic had stood the test of time, courts often presumed that its apparent salaciousness would do little harm, especially if the work was old and likely to be read by a comparative few.
But when the work was modern, and time could not be called as a witness, courts were urged to allow experts to substitute their judgment. Prosecutors and purity groups, in their turn, were seeking to dispense with the test of time by substituting a patina of moralism.
Obscenity litigations, by their nature, collapsed the slow operations of the moral and literary marketplace into a justiciable question. Judges were often reluctant to permit writers, critics, and other experts to invade the province of the fact-finder whether a court or a jury. Judge Martin T. Manton, in his dissenting attack on Judge John M.
One Book Entitled Ulysses Manton felt that Ernst and Woolsey had hijacked the legal process by allowing cultural experts to supplant the intuitions of the larger community. Chapter 2 concludes with two issues critical for understanding the complexity of modernism and obscenity. First, I offer the case of Ulysses to illustrate the uncoordinated, patchwork regulation of obscenity in America during the s and s. Concurrent state and federal legislation, together with multiple federal laws and jurisdictions postal and customs prohibitions , could render the defense of accused books a game of legal whack-a-mole.
Ulysses was subjected to piecemeal prohibition—multiple postal suppressions; prosecution under a New York criminal statute; at least two adjudicated customs seizures—yet never received full legal absolution from the US Supreme Court. Modernism was part of a vast manumission. Chapter 3 takes up this theme of modernism propertized, along with the cultural and market effects that copyright shared with scarcity-producing obscenity laws.
I also examine copyright and patronage as coexisting institutions of modernism. The true artist doubled as self-patron, internalizing the seductions and rewards of creativity. Blackmail might seem a 10 misfit here inasmuch as it was a crime rather than a form of legal protection. Yet it did offer illegal or extralegal protection, purchased from the very person who posed the reputational threat.
If prepublication censorship constituted prior restraint in the realm of obscenity, blackmailers trafficked in prior self-restraint, like a home insurer offering a policy against its own pyromania. Blackmail exploited the power of knowledge. In fact and fiction, servants and other menials—the disempowered—often used blackmail to acquire lucrative control over their indiscreet masters. That Milverton is murdered by one of his aristocratic victims posing as a treacherous servant underscores the class struggle inherent in many blackmail narratives of the period.
The tale of Dorian Gray, who fears blackmail at the hands of his servant, Victor a name suggesting both the power of the invisible domestic and the source of that power in Victorian sexual prudery , ends with Dorian lying dead—withered and wrinkled—attended by his servant, coachman, and footman , Warren and Louis D. I also suggest that James satirizes the very nexus between privacy and intellectual property that Warren and Brandeis made central to their lawyerly brief for a right to be let alone.
Like Wilde, Pound is a capacious figure whose life and writings testify to a tempestuous engagement with what he considered sociolegal pathologies: protectionist book tariffs, discriminatory copyright laws, obscenity statutes that reduced literature to an article of commerce, passport regulations that restricted the mobility of bodies and minds. Rewards for authors, he argued, should have spillover effects that benefit readers and other authors; both patronage and copyright should produce social dividends that go beyond the private economic needs of authors and their heirs.
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Yet his generous theories of copyright, patronage, and money did not keep him from drifting foolishly into anti-Semitic prejudice and fascist ideology, and his indictment for treason in brought him face to face with the law he had always treated as a personal foe. Deemed mentally unfit to stand trial, he never had a chance to confront his accusers in a public forum—as Wilde did in his three trials—much as he had hoped to put on a defense blending the Constitution with Confucius.
The incarcerations of Pound and Wilde bookend modernism and its legal turbulence. He meets Jago who initially thinks him a performer trying to audition as a supporting act in the show , de-hypnotising him to enable him to remember what Chang had made him forget: as a result, Jago realises that the initials "EB" on the glove he has found stand for "Emma Buller" — the missing wife of the cabbie who had confronted Chang earlier.
They head for the cellar, encounter a giant spider, and go through a trapdoor that leads toward the river Fleet. They see a "ghost", and Jago faints; but the Doctor recognises the apparition as a hologram and realises someone is using it to scare off intruders. Litefoot and Leela are having dinner — a strange experience for him, given Leela's lack of table manners. Litefoot notices someone lurking in his garden and, leaving Leela in his dining room, fetches a gun and investigates.
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Jago recovers from his faint, and he and the Doctor chase the returning Weng-Chiang through the theatre. Weng-Chiang hits Jago from behind and nearly kills the Doctor, before getting away. Litefoot, finding nothing outside, returns to the house. Leela, waiting for him, hears him open the front door, then hears the sound of a groan and of a body falling. She opens the passage door to find the dwarfish Mr Sin menacing her with a knife Leela hurls her own knife at Mr Sin, which lodges in its neck, but otherwise does not affect it.
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Finding she is unable to harm Sin, who plainly intends to murder her, she leaps through a closed plate glass window to escape. The Doctor ducks at the sound of breaking glass, just as Chang shoots at him from his place of concealment in the garden. Chang and Sin flee in a carriage, but Leela races after it and stows away on the back. The Doctor tends to Litefoot's injuries, and they discuss what the thieves might have been after — including Litefoot's valuable antique Chinese cabinet. At daybreak, the Doctor and Litefoot are mapping out the sewers and the course of the River Fleet, which now runs wholly underground.
The Doctor proposes an expedition by boat to locate the confluence of the Thames and the Fleet. He brings along a blunderbus which he terms an elephant gun , into the muzzle of which he loads all manner of ammunition. A worried Litefoot warns him that, if he fires it, it will probably explode in his face, but the Doctor tells him that's unthinkable — it was made in Birmingham! In the early dawn, Chang hypnotises a young woman in the deserted streets and brings her to his dressing room at the Palace Theatre, watched by Leela, who is still following him.
When Chang leaves to find a second victim, Leela switches places with the first girl. Chang then brings the disguised Leela, and a young cleaning woman he has taken from the theatre itself, before Weng-Chiang, who grumbles about how wiry they are. The Doctor enters the sewers alone, leaving Litefoot waiting in the boat. In the theatre's cellar, Weng-Chiang puts the cleaning woman in a distillation chamber and turns it on. Leela attacks him and turns off the machine, but the woman has already been aged to death.
Leela escapes into the sewers, but Weng-Chiang closes the barred gate and summons the giant rats by sounding a dinner-gong; when they don't find their usual food waiting, they will comb the sewers for it Two Chinese laundrymen arrive at Litefoot's house and exchange one laundry basket for another.
Meanwhile, at the theatre, the hypnotised young woman whom Leela replaced awakens, initially remembering nothing, but then she recalls Chang attacking her and flees. Jago tells Casey he is working on the mystery of the missing women with someone high up in Scotland Yard the Doctor. In the cellars below, Weng-Chiang accuses Chang of failing to obey the order to kill the Doctor and dismisses him for his failure. In the sewers, Leela flees from a giant rat. Elsewhere in the sewers, the Doctor hears noises and prepares to fire.
He sees Leela race into view, being attacked by the giant rat and screaming in agony The Doctor fires the ancient blunderbus, causing a cacophonous explosion, which miraculously kills the rat without also killing Leela. The latter is more bothered by her failure to kill Weng-Chiang.
They hear another rat coming and depart hurriedly, as the gun will take at least half an hour to reload. Returning to Litefoot's house, Leela describes the fate of Weng-Chiang's latest victim. Litefoot fetches a change of clothing for Leela, who is still wearing the disguise she adopted at the theatre, sending her off to change with the help of his housekeeper, Mrs Hudson , while the Doctor and Litefoot discuss the key of Litefoot's mysterious Chinese cabinet. A well-dressed Leela returns and is delighted to learn they are to attend that evening's performance at the Palace theatre.
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At the theatre, in the meantime, Chang overhears Jago and Casey discussing the imminent return of a Scotland Yard investigator, who he deduces to be the Doctor. He readies a gun, then informs Weng-Chiang that to appease his wrath he will kill the Doctor. That evening, the Doctor and Leela attend the first show at the Palace Theatre, where they are met by Jago. During his act, Chang performs a card trick with the Doctor's assistance, which involves firing a "magic bullet" through a selected card without hitting the others in the pack.
Chang successfully completes this, without succumbing to the evident temptation to shoot the Doctor instead, then invites the Doctor onto the stage to participate in his "Cabinet of Death" trick the vanishing lady illusion.
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Meanwhile, Weng-Chiang, lurking beneath the stage, encounters Casey preparing the Cabinet illusion and murders him. Two Chinamen arrive at Litefoot's house, killing the policeman on guard. The diminutive Mr Sin is already inside the house, having arrived earlier concealed in the laundry basket, and lets them in. The Doctor escapes from the Cabinet of Death by the simple expedient of using the concealed door in its back, as Chang rotates the cabinet to show that it supposedly has no rear door, much to the amusement of the audience.
Chang cracks a joke, in an attempt to recover the situation: "The bird has flown. One of us is yellow! Climbing down a concealed ladder beneath the stage to escape being run-through by the swords, Lee comes face-to-face with Weng-Chiang and faints with shock. On-stage, Chang is handed the final sword by the Doctor and concludes the trick, but when he and the Doctor open the cabinet doors, Casey's lifeless body is revealed inside, which falls out onto the stage.
Jago orders the curtain brought down quickly, while Chang, who is as surprised as everyone else, flees — as Jago frantically cancels the night's performance and offers refunds. The Doctor and Leela locate Chang in Weng-Chiang's cellar hideout, which is now abandoned, with all the equipment removed.
Chang explains how his "god" appeared in China many years earlier, ill from his journey through time, and that they have been looking for the Time Cabinet — taken by the Emperor's soldiers — ever since. Jago arrives, distracting the Doctor and Leela, enabling Chang to flee into the sewers. Leela then finds the clothing of the missing women in the cellar; and, as Jago realises that his star turn was responsible for all the disappearances, a scream is heard.
The Doctor explains darkly: "You'll need to find a new top of the bill He agrees with how Leela tries to see this explanation — as a waterbag with a hole in it: every time he puts more water in the bag, the hole just gets bigger. As the others leave, Jago starts planning how to make money out of the hideout: "See the lair of the phantom — bob a nob! Shortly thereafter, the Doctor and Leela return to Litefoot's house, only to find the body of the murdered policeman outside, and the unconscious Litefoot inside; with Weng-Chiang and Mr Sin driving furiously away, taking the Time Cabinet with them, as Mr Sin laughs uproariously Treating a bruised Litefoot, the Doctor deduces that Mr Sin must have been hiding in the laundry basket.
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He now reveals that Sin is actually the Peking Homunculus , a device which is partly organic containing the cerebral cortex of a pig , partly electronic, and from the future about the year 5, A. It delights in carnage and was responsible for the murder of the Commissioner of the Icelandic Alliance , an event which almost triggered a World War.
At about that time, a scientist named Findicus discovered the Nexus Particle , upon which he based the Sigma experimentss , a crude and dangerous way to travel through time. The Doctor realises that Weng-Chiang's Time Cabinet could incorporate a sigma beam at full stretch, and, if so, its use by someone who doesn't properly understand Sigma technology could destroy London.
Taking Leela with him, he sets out to track down Weng-Chiang's new hideout, using their one clue: the address of the Chinese laundry, on the label of the laundry basket Sin came in. Weng-Chiang still lacks the key of the Time Cabinet, which is in a carpetbag he accidentally left behind at the Palace Theatre. He now forces one of his followers, Lee, to commit suicide as punishment for not bringing it. Jago has found the carpetbag in question, and, learning that the Doctor and Litefoot have been seen together, he takes it to Litefoot's house.
They leave the bag and a note for the Doctor there, and go on to the theatre together, to watch for anyone who might be sent to search for the bag. The Doctor and Leela arrive at the Chinese laundry and find Chang, dying from injuries sustained from the attack by the giant rat. He is heavily drugged by opium to dull the pain and wants to revenge himself on Weng-Chiang. He dies after giving the Doctor two strange clues: a touch on his shoe, and a message to "beware the eyes of the dragon".
The Doctor grumbles that he's left them a Chinese puzzle. Jago and Litefoot follow a group of Chinese to the Tong's new headquarters, where they are spotted from a window by Weng-Chiang. They are captured, and Weng-Chiang threatens to kill Jago if Litefoot does not tell him where the key to the Time Cabinet is. After Litefoot reveals it's at his house, he and Jago are put into a locked room along with two young women who have been hypnotised — Weng-Chiang's next meal.
The Doctor and Leela arrive at Litefoot's house and find the note and the carpetbag containing the key — a crystalline roundel the Doctor describes as a trionic lattice. Leela wants to help Jago and Litefoot, but there is no clue as to where Weng-Chiang now is, so the Doctor thinks it better to wait for Weng-Chiang's men to come to the house, since they will be looking for the key. They search for weapons to set up an ambush. Jago and Litefoot find a dumb-waiter in the wall of the room in which they have been imprisoned, and use it to escape into the throne room — where they are recaptured.
In her body Grasped her bleached marram grass Surfed her peaks and troughs Licked maple syrup from her lips Bathed naked in her volcanic springs Settled my cheek on the inside of her thigh Sipped her dry gin Let her light a candle in my cave. It pushes upwards through a hair follicle in my skin. I let a sliver of white petal touch her forehead; glide downwards towards her mouth. Her pointy Gabor shoes leave redcurrants on his skin. He disappears into his snail shell. The boy rescues his teddy, flees. It was a week later.
She stood at the door of his precious shed snapped the lock with a bolt cutter. Pushed open the door, glared at the crimson carpet on the floor. Much better quality than the one. Thought she was seeing things when she spotted an assortment of handcuffs, whips and leashes hanging from wall hooks. She screamed and threw the bolt cutter at a crotch-less leather pants sprawled across a stool.
He puts the rusted blade of his axe into the bench vice, winds the lever to narrow its jaws until the head is secure, rubs his cheek with the frayed cuff of his jumper. Pulls safety googles over his eyes hits the power button on the angle grinder, moves it over the surface of the axe blade, in slow strokes, like his wife uses when ironing. And massaging her lover. Carool Kersten — Islam in Indonesia Dr.
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