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Foundationalism is the view that philosophical propositions are of two kinds, those which need supporting evidence, and those which in themselves provide the evidence which renders them irrefutable. In the concluding section of the book, an examination of concept formation in religious belief is used to reinterpret the gap between the expressive power of language and the reality of God.

We provide complimentary e-inspection copies of primary textbooks to instructors considering our books for course adoption. Stay on CRCPress. Exclusive web offer for individuals on all book. Home Faith after Foundationalism. Preview this Book. Faith after Foundationalism 1st Edition D. This means that, for Wittgenstein, a possibility of not staying turned round was very much alive for the believer, i.

We need to appreciate how unlike this element of religious believing is to the corresponding element in hinge-certainty. At the time this remark was written cca , Wittgenstein took this sen- tence to be indubitable for Westerners! So much, then, for the strong grammaticalist reading of Wittgenstein on re- ligion. It is important for Tillich, then, to understand what faith is not. Biblical passages, as expressions of the objec- tively ultimate concern, but we hesitate to accept them as our subjective ultimate concern for escapist reasons. In such cases … the appeal to the will is justified … But such an act of will does not produce faith — faith as ultimate concern is already given.

Faith and science, i. Tillich writes: [Psychology] is subject to scientific verification, as is every other scientific endeavour.

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A psychology without soul cannot deny this nor can a psychology with soul confirm it. In keeping with his critique of intellectualistic distortion of faith, Tillich makes clear that the doubt he is talking about is not the methodo- logical doubt which is a permanent and necessary feature of scientific investiga- tion scientific anti-dogmatism.

But it is always present as an element in the structure of faith. This is the difference between faith and immediate evidence either of perceptual or of logical character. This intrinsic element of doubt breaks into the open under special individual and social conditions. If doubt appears, it should not be considered as the negation of faith, but as an element which was always and will always be present in the act of faith.

David Hume

He contrasts that with the static faith described as non-questioning surrender, not only to the ul- timate beyond all descriptions which is theologically warranted, but also to con- crete elements of faith like particular doctrines as formulated by the religious authorities — the Church in Christianity. In this way something that is necessa- rily preliminary and conditional — namely, the human interpretation of the di- vine from the Biblical writers to the present — receives ultimacy and is elevated above the risk of doubt. It only means that a proper awareness of the nature of faith puts the believers into a different and religiously healthier relationship to the creeds which they affirm.

It is perhaps at this point that the Tillichian contribution to the Wittgenstei- nian picture of religious belief-attitude is most relevant. Two things need to be emphasised. In other words: a Tillichian, prescriptive understanding of faith as dynamic demands a rejection of a strong grammaticalist view of religious belief. The Wittgensteinian-grammaticalist emphasis makes us aware that, overall, religious beliefs have a grammatical, regulative status for a believer. Klaus Von Stosch points out that such an integral part of Chris- tian religious life as the act of prayer helps to articulate [doubts concerning fundamental religious beliefs] without invalidating the world-picture-constitutive meaning of religious beliefs … The peculiarity of religious beliefs seems to consist of being able to have all characteristics of world-picture-consti- tutive, regulative beliefs [as are hinge-propositions] without taking part in their internal undeniability.

Wittgenstein and Tillich do present us with different emphases here.

Religion and Morality

Some of those tensions are hard to reconcile. One such tension concerns the cluster of reflections on faith and doubt as exposited by Tillich in his Systematic Theology where he takes up the challenge of verifiabil- ity of religious beliefs, posed by logical positivism and empiricism more gener- ally. In outlining his response, Tillich concedes that the notion of truth, which religion and theology cannot give up, is conceptually linked with the possibility of religious beliefs being false;56 and from this, a notion of experiential verifica- tion is developed which is radically different from experimental verification characteristic for science, according to Tillich.

The latter is not possible in genu- ine religion. Phillips on Re- ligion and the Limits of Philosophy, ed. The point of pointing out this tension is to suggest that a project which would relate Tillich and Wittgenstein more intensively than the present attempt would have such interesting issues to address, and then, inevitably, some gram- matical decisions to make.

IV Wittgensteinian philosophy and Tillichian theology In the remainder of this essay, I want to encourage such exploration by briefly examining a particular Wittgensteinian critique of Tillich by D. In one of his final essays,58 D. Phillips reads Tillich through Kurten as attempting to avoid the danger of faith Phillips means the faith in the Christian God dying out in an increasingly secular society, i. Phillips and Paul Tillich? Is this meant as a logical necessity? And here we come to the final, broadest, but also the least detailed sugges- tion of the present essay which concerns the relation between philosophy and theology.

Voices may die away, and new ones come to be. This is nothing less than the complexities of human life.

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A philosopher contemplates this tangled scene, hoping to do conceptual justice to it, whereas a theologian is a voice with- in it. Tillich is one such voice. Philosophy of Religion. Stephen Evans. Spinoza: Logic, Knowledge and Religion. Richard Mason. Brian Poxon. The Aesthetics of Argument. Martin Warner. Metaphysics and God. Kevin Timpe. Dr Mary Midgley. Repetition and Identity. Catherine Pickstock. Kierkegaard's 'Concluding Unscientific Postscript'. Rick Anthony Furtak. The Oxford Handbook of Kierkegaard. John Lippitt. Genevieve Lloyd. Kierkegaard and the Theology of the Nineteenth Century.

George Pattison. Stuart Brown. Faith and Reason in Kierkegaard. Russell Sullivan Jr. The Problem of Evil. Benjamin W. Christ and Culture. Graham Ward. Basic Modern Philosophy of Religion. Passionate Being. Yve Lomax. Reason, Faith and History. Martin Stone. Free Will. Ilham Dilman. Post-Secular Philosophy. Philip Blond. Expressing the Inexpressible in Lyotard and Pseudo-Dionysius.

Ethics and Christianity. Keith Ward. Overcoming Onto-Theology. Merold Westphal.

Latter Wittgenstein and Religious Belief

A Phenomenology of Christian Life. Politics of Security. Michael Dillon. Philosophy and Life. Rhetorical Investigations. Leslie Gardner. Kierkegaard's Upbuilding Discourses. Language, Logic And God. Varieties of Belief. Faith and Logic. Basil Mitchell.

Ethics as Grammar. Brad J. Deity and Morality. Burton F. God's Goodness and God's Evil. James Kellenberger.


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