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The Duke and the Imposter is book five in The French Orphan series; as a new reader c oming into the series at this point can you give a brief summary of the story to far? The leading character Pierre de Beauvoir is an orphan, raised in a French monastery school. But the Prime Minister of France the infamous Cardinal Richelieu and his French cousin Henri try to get hold of him as they want the fortune that comes with both titles. The Grand Sophy is my favourite. I love the depiction of Regency life, I guess many Jane Austen fans will agree. I am fascinated how fiction can bring history to life.

Do you undertake lots of research prior to starting a book? I have the advantage that I have read lots of books and that I travelled extensively, so I could describe most locations as I had seen and visited them. But I drilled down and checked historical facts, visited museums and studied old maps to be as accurate as possible.

Wikipedia is a blessing as well, it saves hours and days of browsing archives.

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I had to learn that men wore breeches and not pants. Many authors walk into the trap and mention windows in coaches but those have been invented later, in the 17th century they only had blinds. Being precise on these kinds of details is important for me.

  • Patient access to orphan drugs in France | Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Full Text.
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Born and educated in Europe, Michael has always been intrigued by the historical setting and the fact that what makes us human was as true in the 17th century as it is now. He has been reading and writing about history for longer than he cares to recall…. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The datasets analyzed for the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Research Open Access. Patient access to orphan drugs in France. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 14 Abstract Background Since incentives were introduced to promote orphan drugs in Europe, several dozens of drugs have been registered at the European level. Results We identified 91 registered orphan drugs in Europe, corresponding to orphan drug—therapeutic indication pairs. Conclusions Patient access to orphan drugs is not universal in France.

Orphan drugs Rare disease Patient access Availability. In France, National Plans for Rare Diseases promote equal access to diagnosis and care throughout the country [ 4 ]. In particular, expert physician networks are responsible for ensuring appropriate use of orphan drugs.

Mandatory criteria for this health technology assessment are actual clinical benefit and clinical added value. For indications with insufficient actual clinical benefit, the HAS gives a negative opinion for inscription on the list of reimbursed drugs.

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The final decision of reimbursement is the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. The clinical added value is rated on a 5-level scale, and evaluates comparative efficacy and safety data with regards to available treatments reference medicinal product or better treatment modalities. In addition, a health economic assessment may be required.

Both clinical added value and health economic assessment are criteria used during price negotiation with the pharmaceutical companies.

Patient access to orphan drugs in France

Funding mechanisms and rate of reimbursement vary according to drug delivery circuits and HAS opinions. The study was performed in August We focused on drugs with both an orphan designation and a MA for the orphan condition. Patient access to orphan drugs was assessed through 4 dimensions: effective marketing of the drug, that means availability of the drug on the French market; ease of supply from patient perspective, assuming that some prescribing or dispensing restrictions may be barriers to accessibility; financial access funding and rate of reimbursement ; access time between MA and publications of decisions relatives to reimbursement and price.

Our study identified 91 orphan drugs, corresponding to orphan drug—therapeutic indication pairs; Table 1 Orphan drugs in France in August Acknowledgments Joanne Archambault, PhD for English editing assistance, and the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions.

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Funding Not applicable. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication Not applicable.

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Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References Andriukaitis V. Accessed 24 March Le Cam Y. Inventory of Access and Prices of orphan drugs across Europe: a collaboration work between national alliances on rare diseases and Eurordis. Accessed 07 Sep Value in Health. Accessed 24 March Chaffotec AL. Accessed 9 November Orphan Medicines Figures — - WC Accessed 14 April A comparative study of European rare disease and orphan drug markets. Health Policy Amst Neth. Aulois-Griot M, Taboulet F.

Accessed 21 July Google Scholar French Chamber of Pharmacists. Accessed 9 Nov Orphan drugs, orphan diseases. The first decade of orphan drug legislation in the EU. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. Systematic review of available evidence on 11 high-priced inpatient orphan drugs. Orphanet J Rare Dis. Access to orphan drugs despite poor quality of clinical evidence. Br J Clin Pharmacol. What criteria for pharmaceuticals reimbursement?

Eur J Health Econ. Rev Droit Sanit Soc.

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  • Determinants of orphan drugs prices in France: a regression analysis..

Accessed 14 Apr Commission de la Transparence, HAS. Leonard JV, Richmond S. Pricing of orphan drugs. Do payers value rarity? An analysis of the relationship between disease rarity and orphan drug prices in Europe. J Mark Access Health Policy. Estimating the budget impact of orphan medicines in Europe: — Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France Accessed 24 Mar Drugs for exceptionally rare diseases: do they deserve special status for funding? One of the most incredible is that of French orphans who were smuggled into Australia with Anzacs coming home.

Patient access to orphan drugs in France

Until relief efforts and organisations were established, many wandered the battlefields of the Western Front and got by on the kindness of Allied soldiers. They appointed him as their squadron mascot and he endeared himself with his jokes, rat catching and joy-riding in planes. When it was time to ship out, air mechanic Tim Tovell and his brother Ted smuggled the little Digger back home to Jandowae, Queensland. Nine days into the voyage, Henri was discovered but the captain agreed not to report him.

When the ship arrived in Perth, he pretended to be the son of the Queensland Premier, T. Ryan, who was also on board. The story was widely reported in the press, to the point that the Australian Government allowed Tim Tovell to adopt Digger. The French Consul in Brisbane met the boy after he arrived in Australia and noted that he spoke very good French, not patois. For five years, the boy lived with the Tovell family at Jandowae, a farming town north-west of Brisbane.

He moved to Melbourne to work as an office boy at Victoria Barracks and to train as an aircraft mechanic like his stepfather. In , he was killed in a car accident in Melbourne. And of why he and his brother took these risks to smuggle this boy back.